Tatiana Yevtushok

Business psychologist. Gestalt psychotherapist. Coach. Trainer

Critical Thinking and Self-Criticism: Affirmation of Integrity and Healing for Improved Psychological Well-being

We often overlook the necessity to learn how to think critically, even though it is a crucial skill for psychological well-being. Just as a gardener tends to the soil to ensure a bountiful harvest, cultivating critical thinking nurtures a healthy mind, fostering resilience and adaptability to tackle life’s challenges. Critical thinking is defined as the ability to analyze, evaluate, and synthesize information, and it plays a significant role in supporting psychological well-being. Encouraging us to question assumptions, assess biases, and consider alternative perspectives, critical thinking acts as a defensive shield against distorted thought patterns and irrational beliefs that often lead to stress, anxiety, and depression.

From a psychotherapeutic perspective, critical thinking acts as a kind of reflective lens through which an individual can explore their own thoughts, emotions, and lived experience. This cognitive process enables a proper analysis of what’s happening and develops the depth of curiosity and interest in the inner layers of our mind. A therapist assists the client in critically examining their perceptions, beliefs, and behaviors, thereby creating space for transformative growth and development. By exploring diverse viewpoints on lived experiences, the client gains expanded perspectives, developing resilience, problem-solving skills, and the ability to challenge their own unproductive thought patterns. Thus, critical thinking becomes a bridge connecting an individual with the external world, allowing for rational and objective processing of facts, ideas, and viewpoints.

Self-criticism is an important concept to discuss separately, especially in terms of its role in the psychotherapeutic process, as it pertains more to evaluating our own qualities, actions, and behaviors. On one hand, self-criticism is a valuable tool for self-improvement, but it can also become a tool for self-punishment. Excessive pathological self-criticism can lead to negative self-perception, low self-esteem, and increased levels of stress and anxiety. The key in therapy is not to eliminate internal criticism altogether, but to channel it into a constructive path for growth rather than suffering.

While critical thinking focuses outward, directing our attention to external information and viewpoints, self-criticism turns inward, evaluating our thoughts, emotions, qualities, and behaviors. The goal of the former is to enhance cognitive skills, problem-solving abilities, holistic objective understanding of the world around us, making more informed decisions, and expanding possibilities for action. On the other hand, the goal of self-criticism is to improve self-awareness and facilitate personal growth and development.

The journey of developing critical thinking and healthy self-criticism involves the following stages:

Self-awareness: The first step in developing critical thinking is self-awareness. When we harmoniously tune into our thoughts and emotions, allowing us to recognize our automatic reactions and inner responses to events, we gain the ability to take a step back and assess their appropriateness.

Curiosity: It’s important to question the information we receive (whether it’s ultimately true or if there are other possible explanations), the sources of our beliefs and convictions (why do I think/react this way and what might have influenced me in the past or what needs are causing me to think this way, are these biased due to emotional coloring caused by negative or past experiences), and the assumptions underlying our judgments (understanding assumptions enables us to transform them from beliefs into hypotheses – one of the possible options, expanding our perception and motivating us to seek clarity, i.e., to confirm evidence based on facts or research). It’s crucial not to confuse this with doubts that tempt us to evaluate in a black-and-white thinking paradigm (good-bad, believe-don’t believe), but to nurture childlike curiosity.

Open-Mindedness. Encouraging the willingness to explore new ideas, even those that challenge our existing beliefs, helps expand our cognitive horizons and enrich our mental picture of the world.

Analysis. To form a comprehensive understanding, it’s important to learn how to break down complex problems into smaller components and analyze each part individually, considering how they are interrelated.

Evaluation. To do this, it’s necessary to develop the ability to assess the credibility of sources of information or existing judgments, which involves a detailed examination of evident confirmation, weighing potential biases, and the ability to distinguish between facts and perspectives.

Synthesis. Synthesizing diverse viewpoints and information is necessary to form a cohesive picture. This holistic approach develops problem-solving skills and creative thinking.

Example of critical thinking:

A client struggling with social anxiety often avoids social interactions due to fear of judgment. Through critical thinking, the therapist helps the client analyze thoughts that trigger anxiety. They explore evidence for and against the client’s fantasies about what others might think of them, encouraging them to consider alternative explanations for situations. This process allows the client to challenge their assumptions and gradually engage in social interactions from a more balanced perspective.

Example of self-criticism:

A client with a history of perfectionism expresses frustration due to dissatisfaction with their own high standards. During therapy, the client’s self-critical tendencies are explored. The therapist assists the client in distinguishing healthy self-improvement from excessive self-criticism. Through practicing self-compassion, the client learns to acknowledge their achievements without devaluation and refrains from punishing themselves for minor setbacks.

Working with resilience through the integration of critical thinking and healthy self-criticism:

A client is recovering from a traumatic experience of making a damaging mistake and struggles with feelings of guilt and shame. The therapist facilitates the client’s development of critical thinking to uproot self-blame, helping them understand that responsibility isn’t synonymous with guilt and encouraging an exploration of the factors that led to the situation. The therapist also encourages the client to practice self-compassion as a way to transform self-criticism into an ally, acknowledging their pain without judgment, and taking responsibility for their actions without drowning in shame. Through this integration of critical thinking and self-criticism, the client builds resilience and a more balanced self-image, recognizing mistakes and focusing on further growth, incorporating the experience.

Example of overcoming negative self-image:

A client struggles with a negative body image, leading to issues with self-esteem. During therapy, the therapist guides the client through the practice of critical thinking, challenging the client’s distorted perception of their body. Additionally, the therapist supports the development of healthy self-criticism, focusing on growth rather than self-blame. Through this combination, the client develops a more realistic self-perception and healthier relationships with their body.

Example of overcoming guilt for self-care:

A client feels guilty for prioritizing their well-being and self-care needs in contrast to societal or workplace demands. In therapy, the therapist helps the client engage in critical thinking, exploring their motives, intentions, and long-term benefits of self-care, as well as setting realistic expectations and assessing their available resources. The therapist also enhances the client’s self-criticism, activating self-reflection and self-evaluation without devaluing the client’s personal needs or internalizing external blame for self-care. This combination teaches the client to balance social and personal needs, establish healthy boundaries, and manage guilt with mindfulness towards their mental and emotional well-being.

In the realm of the psychology of money, feelings of guilt coupled with the development of destructive self-criticism often arise from the formation of complex beliefs in the past, as well as societal influences. When a client feels guilty about spending on personal needs, believing that they should be saving, investing, or helping others instead, the therapist can support the client in critically analyzing their feelings of guilt and the voice of their inner critic, exploring the underlying beliefs that create stress. Together, they delve into the source of these beliefs—whether they were instilled by family, cultural norms, or personal traumatic experiences. The therapist assists the client in considering alternative viewpoints and questioning assumptions that all expenses must solely serve practicality and self-sacrifice. Through critical thinking, the client gains a broader perspective on the multifaceted nature of financial decisions.

Additionally, the therapist teaches the client to employ self-criticism with self-compassion. The client acknowledges their feelings of guilt without judgment and investigates the origins of their self-expectations. The therapist helps the client differentiate constructive self-evaluation (such as assessing financial goals) from harmful self-criticism. The client learns to approach their self-assessment with kindness and awareness that caring for personal needs and fulfilling them can be part of a balanced financial strategy.

By integrating critical thinking and self-criticism in the context of the psychology of money, individuals can more effectively manage guilt associated with money. They develop the ability to examine their beliefs and motivations while practicing self-compassion. As a result, healthier relationships with money are formed, and excessive emotional stress is reduced.

In each of these examples, critical thinking and self-criticism are intertwined, creating a holistic approach to personal growth and healing. Psychotherapy employs these tools to help individuals manage their thoughts, emotions, and experiences with mindfulness, objectivity, and self-compassion.

Practical tips for self-development of critical thinking and healthy self-critique:

1. Mindful reflection: Set aside time for internal exploration. Practices like focused attention (e.g., meditation) can help observe your thoughts without judgment, leading to a deeper understanding of cognitive processes.

2. Diverse reading: Engage with various viewpoints by reading different genres, including those that challenge your current beliefs. This broadens your psychological toolkit.

3. Socratic questioning: Create your own inner Socrates by asking yourself thought-provoking questions. Challenge your assumptions by asking “why” and “how” regarding your thoughts and perspectives (why do I have this specific thought/belief and how did it develop).

4. Debates and discussions: Participate in constructive debates and discussions with others. Engaging in polite discourse enhances your ability to articulate your thoughts and respond to different viewpoints.

5. Problem-solving exercises: Tackle puzzles, brainteasers, and complex problems. These activities stimulate your analytical thinking, encouraging you to explore unconventional solutions.

6. Journaling: Keep a journal of critical thinking, documenting your reflections, observations, and questions. Over time, reviewing your entries can help identify thinking patterns and areas for personal growth.

When critical thinking and healthy self-critique are integrated into our mental toolkit, we notice a remarkable transformation in our mental well-being. This leads to increased resilience, adaptability, emotional balance, as well as greater clarity, insights, and peace.

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